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All living organisms take up carbon from their environment including a small proportion of the radioactive isotope 14C (formed from nitrogen-14 as a result of cosmic ray bombardment).

The amount of carbon isotopes within living organisms reaches an equilibrium value, on death no more is taken up, and the 14C present starts to decay at a known rate.

The Re-Os isotopic system was first developed in the early 1960s, but recently has been improved for accurate age determinations.

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These are released as radioactive particles (there are many types).

This technique has become more widely used since the late 1950s.

Its great advantage is that most rocks contain potassium, usually locked up in feldspars, clays and amphiboles.

However, there is a limited range in Sm-Nd isotopes in many igneous rocks, although metamorphic rocks that contain the mineral garnet are useful as this mineral has a large range in Sm-Nd isotopes.

This technique also helps in determining the composition and evolution of the Earth's mantle and bodies in the universe.

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